You to website name shines since an effective recombinational desert. Zero CO otherwise gene sales experience was sensed for the a more or less eight hundred kb part nearby the 2 connected gender devotion family genes, csd and you can fem (More document 1: Contour S14). I suggest that, given that heterozygosity regarding csd identifies this new gender out-of honeybee [56,57] and you will diploid homozygotes is sterile people, gene conversion contained in this domain name might be disadvantageous. Due to the fact gene sales was relevant each other which have CO and NCO situations, most of the recombination would be abolished to get rid of homogenization. An absence of recombination along with https://datingranking.net/local-hookup/baltimore/ pushes the two loci to act once the just one haplotype.
The effects stands within the hitting examine to help you an early on claim that located very large CO rates near the brand new csd locus. A prospective resolution of one’s inconsistent claims is that during the newest immediate location of genes there is absolutely no recombination, this can be counterbalanced by strangely high rates in the covers proximal into wasteland. A reduced solution research perform find the better pricing from the spans. Consistent with that it we observe a top height out of recombination within the the brand new quick area of your own plateau (Additional file 1: Contour S14).
The studies increase the insight one to societal hymenoptera have each other highest and you may very changeable crossing-over costs. Actually, the speed varied ranging from 0 and 197 cM/Mb whenever mentioned for the non-overlapping 2 hundred kb screen around the chromosomes (Figure step three, Figure S8 inside the Additional file step one and you may Dining table S6 within the Most file 2), indicating the fresh new extremely bumpy shipping out of crossovers on genome. The figure out of 37 cM/Mb, when you’re higher to possess pet, continues to be below that seen for many fungus and you will protozoans, in which prices over 60 cM/Mb try advertised . Towards the better of all of our education, the latest imagine indicates a high crossing-over rates than just noticed in people plant or creature.
A minimal NCO gene conversion rate
While our study finds evidence consistent with several theoretical predictions, cause and effect are always hard to disentangle from correlation alone. For example, in principle the diversity/crossing-over coupling is also consistent with the notion that crossing over occurs preferentially in domains of high diversity and with the notion that crossing over is mutagenic . Similarly, the correlation between recombination rate and GC content is consistent with both the possibility that crossing over forces a high GC content and with the possibility that a high GC content favors increased crossing over. The conventional wisdom holds that recombination forces heteroduplexes within which mismatches require resolution. If this resolution is biased towards G and C residues (biased gene conversion), then a correlation between GC and recombination rate is expected . Previous analyses in honey bee have demonstrated fixation biases toward GC in high recombination parts of the genome . Evidence to support this direction for the causal arrow requires SNP analysis showing a bias to AT- > GC SNPs being fixed (or otherwise favored) compared to GC- > AT SNPs at sites of recombination. The key events here are most probably crossover-associated gene conversion events, but for these we cannot determine the direction of conversion and we are likely to be missing the majority of them. In our identified NCO events, if u is the number of AT > GC SNPs per A or T and v is the number of GC > AT SNPs per G or C, then the ratio of u/v is 1.06, which is slightly greater than the null (from stochastic simulations with 10,000 repeats: P <0.08). Being on the edge of significance, we cannot robustly say that NCO is or is not associated with GC-biased gene conversion.